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WHAT ARE CYBERCRIMES? Introduction, Types, Safety Measures in 2020

What Are Cybercrimes? 

By KARTHIK - December 31, 2019


WHAT ARE CYBERCRIMES? Introduction, Types, Safety Measures in 2020

Cybercrimes are on the rise with the rise in technology as almost all of us have access to the world at our fingertips. Now individuals, as well as companies of all scale, use mobiles, computers, and laptops for all their personal and professional use. Organizations ranging from a start-up to a world-renowned corporation, it is essential to have a seamless flow of information which requires systems like a computer network, Wide Area Network (WAN), domain and website. These networks are under a high-risk exposure to the world of hacking and hackers.
Hacking is a fraudulent act that is generally termed as privacy invasion, stealing corporate/personal data, Data breach, etc. Cybercrime Damages will be $6 Trillion by 2021 and therefore businesses need to protect themselves against such attacks.
Is hacking a crime
Hacking is classified as a Cybercrime. Cybercrime in laymen’s terms can be defined as crimes committed over the internet and some cybercrimes can also be carried out using Mobile phones via SMS and online chatting applications. There is a long list of illicit and unauthorized activities that are collectively termed as cybercrime. These illegal activities are carried out by the use of computers and networks to spread computer viruses, collecting private data, online bullying, performing unauthorized electronic fund transfers, etc.



      • Privacy Violation
      • Sharing Copyrighted Files/Information
      • Denial Of Service Attacks
      • Identity Theft
      • Electronic Funds Transfer
      • Electronic Money Laundering
      • Computer Fraud
      • ATM Fraud
      • Spam
  • Effects On Business
  • Effects On National Security
  • Internet Awareness For Parents
  • Internet Awareness For Teens And Young Adults
  • Internet Awareness For Organizations



Hacking is classified as a Cybercrime. Cybercrime in laymen’s terms can be defined as crimes committed over the internet and some cybercrimes can also be carried out using Mobile phones via SMS and online chatting applications.
 There is a long list of illicit and unauthorized activities that are collectively termed as cybercrime. These perform illegal activities that are carried out by the use of computers and networks to spread computer viruses, collecting private data, online bullying, performing unauthorized electronic fund transfers, etc.




Intentional intrusion, physically or otherwise on his/her private affairs or concerns like exposing personal information such as email addresses, phone numbers, account details, personal/private data on social media, websites is an invasion of privacy. This is also called as doxing when one publishes private or identifying information of an individual on the Internet with malicious intent.



This involves owning or unauthorized distributing of copyright-protected files such as eBooks, computer programs or music and movies over the internet. The copying, distribution or sharing of copyrighted works without permission is referred to as PIRATING or in the context of peer-to-peer networks ILLEGAL FILE SHARING.



(DoS) the attack is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users. DoS attacks accomplish this by flooding the system of an individual or organization with traffic or sending it information that triggers a crash. This involves the use of computers in multiple locations to attack servers with the intention of shutting down the system.



 Stealing someone’s personal information and impersonating that person for unauthorized fund transfers or data collection. The imposter obtains key pieces of personally identifiable information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to impersonate someone else



The electronic fund's transfer is the transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, through computer-based systems. This crime involves gaining unauthorized access to bank accounts or bank computer networks in order to make illegal fund transfers.



It is the process of disguising the proceeds of crime and integrating it into the legitimate financial system. This is the use of the computers to convert illegal funds or black money to a legal tender and the process includes include shell companies, offshore accounts, smurfing and fraudulent record-keeping.



Intentional deception for personal gain, alter electronic data, or to gain unlawful to defraud people or organizations of resources through the use of computer systems.



ATM Frauds are evolving in the age of digitization and this involves intercepting ATM card details such as account number and PIN numbers. These details are then used to withdraw funds from the intercepted accounts.


Spam is electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings. Some people define spam even more generally as any unsolicited email or sending unauthorized emails. These emails usually contain advertisements or malware programs which when clicked may cause a data breach or create a system security threat within the mail as well as the system.



An accurate estimate of losses due to cybercrime is difficult to assess accurately. In 2018, McAfee released a report on the economic impact of cybercrime that estimated the likely annual cost to the global economy was nearly $600 billion, up from $45 billion in 2014. 
Cybercrime Damages will be $6 Trillion by 2021 and therefore businesses need to protect themselves against such attacks.
The financial losses due to cybercrime are significant and businesses can also suffer far worse consequences because of criminal cyberattacks.


  • Following a cyberattack, firms not only lose current customers, but they also lose the ability to gain new customers.
  •  Customers lose their trust in a company and that company's ability to keep their financial data safe.
  •  Drop in the value of a company due to a security breach that will damage the perception of the investor about the company.
  • Businesses will also be sued over the data breach. Loss of sensitive customer data can result in fines and penalties for companies that have failed to protect their customers' data. 
  •  The businesses might suffer from potential share price drops, businesses may also face greater difficulty in raising more capital and an increased cost for borrowing and as a result of a cyberattack.
  •  A cyber attack will result in damaged brand identity and loss of reputation which will result in the failure of the organization.
  • Businesses will have to find direct costs for safety from a cyberattack. Cybercrimes including increased insurance premium costs and the cost of hiring cybersecurity companies for protection, response or prevention, as well as public relations (PR) and other services in case of an attack.



  • Cybercrimes will also have public health and national security implications, making computer crime one of the top priorities.
  •  In the United States, at the federal level, the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Cyber Division is the agency within DOJ that is charged with combating cybercrime.
  • Almost all countries see strengthening the security and resilience of cyberspace as an important aspect of their security needs.
  • Agencies such as the U.S. Secret Service (USSS) and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) have special divisions dedicated to combating cybercrime.
  • National security Agencies investigate cases that involve electronic crimes, particularly attacks on the nation's financial and critical infrastructures.
  • In the US the National Computer Forensics Institute (NCFI) provides state and local law enforcement, judges and prosecutors with training in computer forensics.
  • The data breach from a security agency will result in the loss of sensitive and classified data. The loss of top-secret documents will result in great national security implication
  • The Internet has become one of the integral parts of our daily life. It has transformed the way we communicate, make friends, share updates, play games, and shop. They are impacting most aspects of our day-to-day life.




Internet connects us virtually with millions of online users across the globe. With the increasing use of cyberspace, cybercrimes such as cyberstalking, cyberbullying, cyber harassment, child pornography, rape content, etc. are also increasing rapidly. To stay safe against such crimes especially women and children in the online world, it is important to follow some safety measures which will help in making our online experience safe and productive:



  • Talking to your children about the potential online threats such as grooming, bullying, and stalking, keep track of their online activities and making them understand the dos and don’ts while surfing.
  •  Making clear guidelines for internet and online game usage.
  • Never install software, games, music, and apps from trusted sources.
  • Parents should discuss the responsible use of social media. Also, they should educate and help them in selecting strong privacy settings.
  • Install anti-virus software with parental control functionality or parental control software on the devices used by children.
  • Children may remove privacy settings on social media to make more friends.
  • Do not click on links or files received in the text message, e-mail, or social media from an unknown person. This could be an attempt to infect the computer with malware and hack your personal/ private information.
  • It is recommended to cover webcam when not in use. A web camera if hacked/compromised can be leveraged as a medium to observe/watch and record day to day activities.
  • Always choose an updated version of the browser and install safe browsing tools for protecting yourself from hackers and malware.
 Talk to your child and engage him/ her in other activities. If the child begins to spend more time online and starts being defensive or secretive about their online activities, it may be an indicator of cyber grooming.

 Grooming is a practice where someone builds an emotional bond with a child through social media or chat window with the objective of gaining their trust for sexual or financial favours.
Hackers target software vulnerabilities to access private information and putting you at risk, so make sure to update all your software with the latest security patches.



  • Keep right settings on your devices to secure your online presence like social media accounts, where photos and videos posted can be viewed, downloaded and used by others without your knowledge.
  • Share your information, photos, and videos only with your trusted ones. Select the right privacy settings and content sharing filters on social media so that your information is safe and secure.
  • Be selective about accepting friend requests of strangers on social media Beware of fake social media accounts and information provided on accounts are might not be true.
  • Disable location services for social media sites, mobile devices, etc and learn how to secure your phone with a password, logout from social media websites after use
  • Block anyone who is making you uncomfortable from your friend list
  • Inform social media service provider if you notice your fake account has been created so that the account can be blocked immediately
  • Be mindful of your appearance on video chat & video calls as your video chats on social media sites can be recorded by the person on the other side.
  • Do not use a Smartphone for taking sensitive personal photographs and videos and be mindful of uploading to the cloud.
If a picture or video has been clicked/ recorded by using a smartphone connected with the cloud, it may get saved automatically into the cloud. Even if users delete their photos or videos from their phones, the same photo or video can be recovered from the cloud account or any other device/ PC connected to the cloud using the same account.

They use the internet, email, social media or any other form of electronic communication for stalking is Cyberstalking. They show advances on a person repeatedly despite clear indication of disinterest by such person. Consult with your relatives and friends, if you notice strange activities while using the internet before being a victim of Cyberstalking.

One should browse shopping or banking websites or apps only on a device that belongs to him/ her or on a trusted network. Avoid using a friend’s phone, public computer, cyber cafe or free Wi-Fi for sensitive browsing as data can be stolen or copied.

Personal commuters and mobile devices consist of private information which needs to be erased before sending it for repairing, servicing or selling. Be careful while you give your mobile devices, PC’s for servicing/repairing/selling. The deleted data on your communication devices can be recovered.

Install applications to your mobile phones, computers, etc. from a trusted source only e.g. Play Store, App Store or from official company websites. Prevent others from accessing your devices by providing password, PIN, Pattern or biometric information.
Report activities on National Cyber Crime ReportingPortal if you find content related to Child Pornography (CP)/Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM) or sexually explicit material.
Any content related to of Child Pornography (CP)/ Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM) or sexually explicit material such as Rape/ Gang Rape (CP/RGR) content should be reported to the concerned social media website.



  • Organizations should have clear rules for the use of electronic devices provided by the organization
  • All organizations should have clear and strong HR policies on how to deal with sexually explicit material, or criminal activities like Child Pornography (CP)/ Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM).
  • If any employee is found possessing obscene or indecent content, proper investigation and action should be taken against them.
  • The organization should report any incidence of sharing and storage of obscene content within the organization to the police. The copy of the content should be saved as evidence with restricted access.
  • Transfer and sharing of all other copies of the content should be stopped and deleted.
  • Under Section 67 and 67A of Information Technology Act, 2000 makes publication and distribution of any material containing sexually explicit act or conduct in electronic form a punishable offense.

 WHAT IS HACKING? Types of Hackers and Ethical Hacking



WHAT ARE CYBERCRIMES? Introduction, Types, Safety Measures in 2020 WHAT ARE CYBERCRIMES? Introduction, Types, Safety Measures in 2020   Reviewed by KARTHIK on January 07, 2020 Rating: 5
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